Behold the beauty of sri lanka

 History of Anuradhapura........

Anuradhapura has been made royal capital by the king Pandukabhaya in 380 BC.It remained residence and royal capital for 119 successive Singhalese kings till the year 1000 AD,when it was abandoned and the capital moved to Polonnaruwa. you will see some of the most famous as well as the tallest Dagoba of Sri- lanka. remains from palaces,temples, monasteries, ceremonial baths and the temple of the holy bo-tree. this tree was grown from a sapling of the very tree under which more than 2500 years ago, the Buddha found enlightenment...   

                                      With the dawn of the second century BC, adventurers from across the palk strait had begun to settle down in the northern coast.One such intruder called Elara, became supreme in almost whole of the North and reigned from Anuradhapura.He was later challenged by ruler Gemunu,son of king Kavantissa. later this independent ruler,Gemunu of the South met in combat with Elara and the latter was killed. For the first time a single kingdom for the Island arose...        

                                Dutugemunu's reign saw the culmination of Buddhism. Dutugemunu (161 - 137 BC ) contributed immensely for the religion of Buddhism. Anuradhapura Kingdom lasted one thousand and five hundred years. Despite the intrusion and clashes of South Indian Chola, Pandyan and Pallava, there prevailed stability in the continuity of Anuradhapura civilisation.

        Due to the strong diplomatic relations among the countries, like Rome and China in first century  AD. Fahsien visited Sri lanka, and in seventh century........

              (The oldest historically documented tree on earth, it grew from a sapling taken 2,241 years ago from the very same tree under which Lord Buddha gained  enlightenment............. )     

History of Polonnaruwa.....

 Polonnaruwa Era  existed between (AC 1065 - 1120 ), The governing period of this time was about 186 years and 19 rulers had sat on the throne in that period.  During the final period in Anuradhapura era, the cholas shifted the political power to Polonnaruwa, wich was situated in the eastern side of the dry zone. The main reason was security, as it was regarded as a strategic location to guard against an invasion from Ruhuna, the refuge of the Sinhalese liberation force.

                        Still the Cholas were unsuccessful in defending  themselves against Vijayabahu offensive riot against Polonnaruwa. They Surrendered in 1070 and left the island.... 

  While Vijayabahu's victory and shifting of kindoms to the more strategic Polonnaruwa is considered significant, the real Polonnaruwa Hero of the history books is actually his grandson, Parakramabahu 1. It was his reign that is considered the Golden Age of Polonnaruwa.When trade and agriculture flourished under the patronage of the king, who was adamant that no drop of water falling from the heavens was to be wasted, and each be used toward the development of the land: hence, irrigation system far superior to those of the Anuradhapura Age were constructed during Parakramabahu's reign. System which to this day supply the water neccery for paddy cultivation during the scorching dry season in the east of the country. The greatest of these system is the Parakrama Samudraya, or the Sea of Parakrama, a tank so vast that it is often mistaken for the Ocean...   

     It is of such a width that it is impossible to stand upon one shore and view the other side, and it encircles the main city like a ribbon, being both a defensive border against intruders and the lifeline of the people in times of peace. The Kindom of Polonnaruwa was completely self-sufficient during King parakramabahu's reign..........

History of Lion Rock.....

   The Chadel of     Sigiriya...

Sigiriya has it all- a blood- stained history full of intrigue, astonishing frescos of bare - breasted maidens painted 15th centuries ago, a wall covered in graffiti that is more than 1,000 years old and, to top it all, Asia's oldest surviving landscape garden.

           Dark deeds led to the establishment of Sigiriya as the center of the ancient Sinhalese Kingdom for a period of 18th years in the late 5th Century. The reign of King Dhatusena came to an abrupt end in 477 A.D. When his throne was seized by Kasyapa, his son by a wife of unequal birth. Kasayapa's action was prompted by the fear that his younger half-brother mogallan, who was born of the anointed queen, Would take over the throne. Kasyapa was convinced that his father was hiding a cache of treasure from him, and demanded that the King reveal where this wealth was hidden.

    Dhatusena took the young usurper to the bund of the Kalawewa, the greatest of his irrigation works, below which lived a venerable monk who had been his teacher and companion of many years. There, the old King pointed, was the sum of all his wealth. in a fit of pique, Kasyapa ordered the old man to be walled up alive and naked in his own tomb. Meanwhile, Mogallan survived as assassination attempt by his brother and fled to India to raise an army. paranoia, arrogance and delusions of divinity drove Kasyapa to leave the traditional Sinhalese capital of Anuradhapura and construct his palace on the peak of Sigiriya Rock, a perfect lookout which could be easily defended, a huge lion was carved out of the rock. Seven years after ascending the throne, he moved into his new home...

   Visitors to the palace entered via a stone stairway that took them into the lion's mouth and through its throat-- hence Sigiriya's alternative name, '' Lion Rock''. Only the lion's massive paws remain today, but they indicate how gigantic the rest of the carving must have been.....

                       Two water tanks,used for bathing and drinking, still fill with rain water, but in Kasyapa's day a sophisticated pumping system was used to fill the tanks from a lake at the foot of the rock. Sigiriya is approached from the west over a moat that encloses an elaborate water garden that runs up to the foot of the rock. A stone stairway takes visitors past caves and hollows, where early Buddhist monks lived and worshipped, to a gallery half way up the rock which is enclosed by a three-meter high wall. Large sections of the so-called Mirror Wall are still intact, and is here that graffiti artists have inscribed their neat messages, many of them more than ten centuries old and some, alas, partially obscured by the scrawled initials of modern egoists. Most of the ancient graffiti refers to the Sigiriya Maidens, who are to be found up a spiral staircase about 14 meters above the Mirror Wall gallery in a natural pocket in the rock which has been protected for centuries from the rain by an overhang. Nobody knows who painted these amazing frescoes, but the Maidens testify to a highly advanced Sinhalese civilization at a time when Europe was in the Dark Ages....    

               It is not known whether Kasyapa knew of the existence of the beauties hidden just below his eyrie, but what is known is that the King came to a sticky end, perhaps deservedly. In 495, his brother Mogallan at last returned from India with an army of combined Chola and Sinhalese troops behind him and Kasyapa descended from his impregnable stronghold to meet him in battle. At a crucial stage in the battle, the King's elephant balked at a hidden swamp before him and momentarily turned aside, making his troops believe he was retreating. His army broke in confusion, leaving Kasyapa defenseless. Flamboyant to the last, he drew his dagger, slashed his own throat, raised the blade high in the air and sheathed it again before falling down dead.
Sigiriya's halcyon days ended with Kasyapa's death. But the grandeur of this astonishing rock lives on........